In order to better manage stormwater, continual research is being conducted at centers across the country. Topics of special interest include emerging technologies, such as permeable pavement, and ideal soil mixtures for features like rain gardens and green roofs. Centers currently contributing to stormwater research include:

Low Impact Development Mid-Atlantic Research Consortium

Washington State University Puyallup LID

University of Central Florida Stormwater Academy

The EPA is also leading research, in partnership with universities and other government agencies, to analyze the impact of green infrastructure technologies and policies on economic development and the environment.

Additional Resources

Several resources are available for individuals, communities, and municipalities interested in implementing green infrastructure to better manage stormwater runoff. A good place to start is the EPA’s Green Infrastructure website, which includes tools for defining and explaining green infrastructure, calculating economic savings, connecting with your local community, and exploring existing projects. 

Below are other helpful resources on specific topics:

Design and Construction

Community Organizing and Public Outreach


Economic Evaluations

For Municipalities


Below is a list of articles that were reviewed during the creation of these green infrastructure pages. They are provided for those who may want more in-depth, technical and scientific information.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2002a. Economic Analysis of Proposed Effluent Limitation Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Construction and Development Category. p. 7-24. Washington, D.C.

Ingvertson, S.T.M., B. Jensen, and J. Magid. 2011. A minimum data set of water quality parameters to assess and compare treatment efficiency of stormwater facilities. Journal of Environmental Quality. 40:1488-1502

Karathanasis, A.D., C.L. Potter, and M.S. Coyne. 2003. Vegetation effects on fecal bacteria, BOD, and suspended solid removal in constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater. Ecological Engineering. 20(2): 157-169

Klein, R.D. 1979. Urbanization and stream quality impairment. Water Resources Bulletin. AWRA. August 1979.

McIntyre, J.K., et al. 2012. Low-level copper exposures increase visibility and vulnerability of juvenile Coho salmon to cutthroat trout predators. Ecological Applications. 22(5): 1460-1471

Scholz, N.L., Myers, M.S., McCarthy, S.G., Labenia, J.S., McIntyre, J.K., Ylitalo, G.M., Rhodes, L.D., and Collier, T.K. 2011. Recurrent die-offs of adult Coho salmon returning to spawn in Puget Sound lowland urban streams. PLOS One. 6(12): e28013

Washington State Department of Ecology. 2008. Guidance for Evaluating Emerging Stormwater Technologies: Technology Assessment Protocol-Ecology.  Publication number 02-10-037.

Young, R.A. 2005. Determining the Economic Value of Water, Concepts, and Methods. RFF Press. p. 290. Washington, D.C.